Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Classroom Assessment Chapter 7

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 7 - Performance Assessment

* see Chapter 4 for the most appropriate times to use selected response assessments

* before you begin, use the assessment development cycle and make a blueprint (Ch. 4)

* remember to not confuse activities with learning targets!

Determine Sample Size with Performance Assessment

1 ) Complexity of the Target
- the more complex, the more evidence required
(ex) reading rate = less complex, reading fluency = more complex

2 ) Decision the Evidence will Inform
- for learning requires low level of evidence

3 ) Consistency of Performance
- use professional judgement
- gather more evidence for students with high fluctuations
     - make sure any applicable biases are addressed first

4 ) Proximity to the Cutoff Mark
- gather more evidence for those students who fall close to grade-divides 
(ex) students who are between a 3-4 on the provincial report cards

Selecting, Revising, or Developing the Task

1 ) The Content
- what learning target is demonstrated?

2 ) Target Alignment
- content validity
- only assess aspects of the learning target; NOT things like neatness

3 ) Authenticity
- realistic context as close to real-life as practical

4 ) Choice
- use cautiously as choices need to fit the target, not vary in difficulty & ensure validity

5 ) Level of Scaffolding
- point the way to success without doing the thinking for the students

6 ) Interference
- make sure aspects of the task do not interfere with achieving the actual learning target
(ex) too high of reading level in the instructions, situations requiring specific cultural/linguistic backgrounds

Structure of the Task

- be as specific as possible and ensure students know: 
     - what knowledge they need (the target)
     - what they need to accomplish
     - what they are creating
     - what materials they need
     - how much time they have
     - what conditions need to be met
     - what help is allowed
     - what scoring criteria will be used

Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 7.8 Characteristics of a Good Rubric. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 231.
* make sure scoring rubrics only include info on the qualities of the task; NOT directional instructions like word limits

Process for Developing Rubrics

1 ) Establish a Knowledge Base
- work with those knowledgeable in the area
- determine what quality looks like
- review existing rubrics for inspiration

2 ) Gather Samples of Student Performances/Rubrics
- familiarize yourself with a range of quality 
- student work, provincial examples, peer examples, self created, hard copy, video, audio
- at least 20 pieces

3 ) Sort Work by Level of Quality
- sort into weak, medium & strong
- write specific descriptions as to why its sorted that way
- relate descriptions back to learning target

4 ) Cluster Descriptions by Trait
- combine similar descriptions
- omit repeats
- separate those that cannot be linked

5 ) Identify Samples that Illustrate Each Level
- will be used as models/examples
- which are strong? weak? start with the extremes
- have multiple examples for each level
- try to include those that identify common misconceptions

6 ) Test & Revise as Needed

_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

I found this chapter very confusing as it seemed to focus more on rubrics (in general) than anything else....

Please leave your thoughts below :)

Thursday, July 21, 2016

Classroom Assessment Chapter 6

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 6 - Written Response Assessment

* see Chapter 4 for the most appropriate times to use selected response assessments

* before you begin, use the assessment development cycle and make a blueprint (Ch. 4)

Developing the Items

1 ) Knowledge Questions
- provide context
- specifically state what you want students to explain
- point the way to an appropriate response
     (ex) a mark breakdown by concept

2 ) Reasoning Questions
- same steps as knowledge questions but specify the kind of reasoning to be used

3 ) Interpretive Questions
* provide a passage, table, chart, map, etc and students use reasoning to answer questions about it
- same steps as knowledge questions but explain the provided item and specify the kind of reasoning to be used

classroom assessment for student learning
Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 6.2 Options for Item Design. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 175.
 Scoring Guide Options

1 ) Task-specific List
- list all possible correct options & info about how points are awarded
- lists should be shared to help point the way to a response BUT don't be so specific that you give away answers

2 ) Task-specific Rubric
- a rubric that describes features of quality as they appear in a single task
- can't be given to students because it gives away the answer
- used for conceptual understanding
- how to make one:
     - create a proposition for the understanding
     - identify partial understanding
     - identify misunderstandings
     - determine how many levels the rubric should have and assign points

3 ) General Rubric
- a rubric that describes features of quality as they appear across items/tasks
- can be given to students to guide them to an answer
- use the same steps as a task-specific rubric but remain general

Checking the Assessment for Quality

- students should be able to finish in the provided time frame
- make sure multiple students aren't asking for clarification on specific questions

How to Use Written Response as Formative Assessment

- provide samples and let students score them
- provide a list of misconceptions and have students work towards correcting them
- make rubrics to provide feedback

_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

Many teachers often have a section in their written response rubrics that covers grammar and spelling. Based on my understanding of the reading, any rubrics should address the learning target only so any class other than English wouldn't have grammar or spelling as a learning target.

Should you still include grammar and spelling as an area of assessment in a rubric?

Please leave your thoughts below :)

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Classroom Assessment Chapter 5

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 5 - Selected Response Assessment

* see Chapter 4 for the most appropriate times to use selected response assessments

* before you begin, use the assessment development cycle and make a blueprint (Ch. 4)

Assessment Development Cycle Cont.

5 ) Develop or Select Items, Exercises, Tasks, & Scoring Procedures
a ) Identify content to include
     - use your professional judgement
b ) writing propositions
     - facts/concepts students will be held accountable for learning
     *seems to be the learning targets rewritten in student language
c ) choosing item types
Classroom assessment for student learning
Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 5.4 Comparison of Selected Response Item Types. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 133.
d ) writing items
     - take propositions from step "b" and change slightly based on item type to create questions
     - multiple choice: keep first part of proposition as a question and use the other part as the correct answer, 
     fill with plausible answers
     - matching: separate into parts like for multiple choice but use multiple propositions
     - true/false: rewrite proposition but make 1 part false
     - fill-in-the-blank: leave out the part of the proposition that defines the concept
e ) general guidelines
     - aim for the lowest possible reading level
     - ask a full question in the stem
     - eliminate grammatical cues (asking for plural, using "an", etc)

6 ) Review and Critique the Overall Assessment for Quality Before Use
a) determine testing time
     - can it be completed and reviewed in the time given
b ) review for quality
     - does it match the blueprint
     - can proper propositions be created from the questions
     * there is a great Quality Checklist on page 146

7 ) Conduct and Score the Assessment

8 ) Revise as Needed

How to Use Selected Response as Formative Assessment

* follows 7 strategies of formative assessment from Chapter 2 

1 ) Provide students with a clear & understandable vision of the learning target
- student friendly language
- have students write propositions

2 ) Use examples of strong and weak work
- students identify wrong multiple choice answers and explain why

3 ) Offer regular descriptive feedback
- use distractors to intentionally frame corrective feedback

4 ) Teacher students to self-assess and set goals
- students can use the blueprint to gauge their understanding

5 ) Design lessons to focus on one target at a time
- students can use propositions to generate items

6 ) Teach student focused revision
- students answer, "how can I make this better"

7 ) Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track and share their learning
* there are good "reviewing results" tables to use with students on pages 152 & 154

_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

How often do you use selected response questions in your assessment tasks?

Please leave your thoughts below :)

Classroom Assessment Chapter 4

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 4 - Sound Design

*teachers vary assessment methods to offer choice and/or accommodate learning preferences but methods should match the learning targets

Assessment Options

1 ) Selected Response
- chose the correct response from a previous list
- multiple choice, true & false, matching, fill-in-the-blanks
- judged correct or incorrect

2 ) Written Response
- construct a response based from a prompt
- short answer, extended response
- judged by a scoring criteria/rubric

3 ) Performance Response
- observation of real-time demonstration or products
- playing an instrument, lab reports, wood shop creations
- judged by a scoring criteria/rubric

4 ) Personal Communication
- structured or unstructured interactions
- participation, student journals, interviews/conferences
- good for determining misunderstandings and giving immediate feedback

*You can determine what type of assessment method matches particular types of learning targets by using this table
classroom assessment for student learning
Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 4.3 Target Method Match. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 94.
Assessment Development Cycle

1 ) Determining Users & Uses
- who will use the results?
- how will they use the results?
- is it formative or summative? (if formative, remember the 4 steps from Ch. 1)

2 ) Specify the Intended Learning Targets
- determine if its knowledge, reasoning skill or product (see Ch. 3)

3 ) Select the Appropriate Assessment Match 
- see image above

4 ) Determine an Appropriate Sample Size
- "how much evidence is enough?" "how long should the assessment be?"
a ) assessment purpose
     - an exit slip to guide tomorrow's lesson requires less evidence than a final exam
b ) nature of the learning target
     - the broader the target, the more complex and the more evidence that is needed
     - procedural knowledge is short, competent writing is complex
c ) assessment method
     - you may need more multiple choice questions because they only ask limited information at a time
     - written response questions can cover more so you need less of them
d ) the students 
     - use professional judgement; you know when students "get it" and which ones need more evidence
     - this is more relevant during formative than summative

Assessment Blueprints

- helps ensure the assessment is measuring what you need it to: validity
- example table
Learning
Target
Target
Type
Assessment Option
Total
%





*try to account for potential sources of bias or distortion; good planning helps but you'll never be able to address all of them with all students
Classroom assessment for student learning
Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 4.7 Potential Sources of Bias and Distortion Common to All Assessment Methods. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 112.
_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

What exactly differentiates between an extended writing assessment and a performance task?
Lab reports are under performance... not writing. The chapter also includes term papers as performance tasks where I would have thought of them as writing tasks.

Please leave your thoughts below :)

Classroom Assessment Chapter 3

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 3 - Clear Targets

*learning targets are statements of the intended learning

Knowledge Targets

- the factual, procedural, and conceptual understandings at the root of any subject
- factual and procedural
     - know, list, name, identify, know how to, use
     - low-level Bloom's taxonomy
- conceptual
     - understand, explain
- knowing via reference
     - things students don't need to memorize
     - make sure students know how to find the right answers

Reasoning Targets

- the thought process to apply and transfer knowledge across subjects
- inductive and deductive inference
     - a reasonable guess/conclusion based on info/clues
     - inductive uses evidence to infer a rule/principle; "reading between the lines"
     - deductive uses rules/facts to infer a conclusion
- analysis
     - to examine the components/structure of something
- comparison
     - sorting things into categories by characteristic
- evaluation
     - expressing and defending an opinion, a point of view, a judgement or decision
- synthesis
     - combining elements to make something new
*make sure you don't accidentally turn a reasoning target into a knowledge target
     - for example, if you compare/contrast characters verbally in class as you read a novel then this would be a 
     knowledge question if asked again on a test because students are simply recalling

Skill Targets

- when a demonstration of physical skill-based performance is central to the learning
- serving a volleyball, kneading dough, conversing in a second language

Product Targets

- when the creation of an artefact/product is the focus of the learning
- the qualities of that product are assessed
* don't confuse and activity with assessment of the learning target; ask yourself "what should they be learning" NOT "how will they demonstrate it"

Disposition Targets

- a student's attitude, motivations, and interests; a byproduct of education experiences
- value outcomes in social studies
- learning behaviours on provincial report cards

How to Deconstruct Curriculum Standards

1 ) Determine the target type (see above)
2 ) Identify the pre-requisite knowledge/skills needed
3 ) Check for accuracy and reasonableness 

Classroom Assessment for student learning
Chappius, et al. (2012). Figure 3.11 Benefits of Clear Targets. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning, pg 74.

_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

Do you clearly state the target of the lesson for your students every class?

This chapter shared a teacher story where she admitted that she used to assume that the purpose of the day's lesson was clear and evident based on her discussions; when students where prompted, however, they were unclear.

I am guilty of assuming the purpose of the lesson is clear. I discuss learning targets with students but probably not as often as a should; I don't do it every class.

Please leave your thoughts below :)

Classroom Assessment Chapter 2

     To help us work towards our school goal of improving our understanding and practice of assessment, my principal has provided our staff with a copy of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing it Right - Using it Wellby Jan Chappuis, Rick Stiggins, Steve Chappuis, and Judith Arter. As I make my way through the book, I will be summarizing my learning as a means of organizing my thoughts and getting clarification on particular ideas.


Classroom Assessment for Student Learning Cover. (Accessed 2016). Uploaded to Amazon; Pearson Education. Available online at: https://www.amazon.ca/Classroom-Assessment-Student-Learning-Doing/dp/0132685884

Chapter 2 - Assessment for and of Learning

Impact of Formative Assessment on Learning

- students need opportunities to express understanding
- dialogue between teachers and students needs to be reflective and explore understandings
- feedback should be about an individuals work with advice on how to improve; no comparisons to others
- students need to be trained in self-assessment 

Formative vs. Summative

1 ) Formative
- informal or formal
- to improve student learning
- reason for assessing
     - promote increases
     - support growth
     - help students meet learning targets
- audience
     - students
- focus of assessment
     - specific targets selected by teachers to help students develop mastery
- place in time
     - a process during learning
- primary users
     - students, teachers, parents
- typical uses
     - help teachers diagnose and respond
     - help parents see progress and support students 
     - provide students with insight

2 ) Summative
- formal
- to make a judgement about student competency
- reason for assessing
     - document mastery
     - measure achievement status
- audience
     - others
- focus of assessment
     - standards for which schools/teachers/students are held accountable
- place in time
     - an event after learning
- primary users
     - admin, teachers, students, parents
- typical uses
     - grading decisions

Formative Assessment only increases students understanding when:

1 ) it aligns directly with the targets to be learned
2 ) the items/tasks match what has been taught
3 ) it is detailed enough to pinpoint misunderstandings
4 ) results are available quickly
5 ) teachers and students take action with the results

7 Strategies of Formative Assessment

1 ) Provide students with a clear & understandable vision of the learning target
- student friendly language
- provide scoring criteria/rubrics
- ask, "why are we doing this?" "what are we learning"

2 ) Use examples of strong and weak work
- anonymous examples
- explain what parts are strong/weak and why
- share the development/revision process so students know that it doesn't have to be a one-shot deal

3 ) Offer regular descriptive feedback
- direct attention to learning and guide improvement
- during learning
- address partial understandings
- do not do the thinking for the students
- limit info to the amount students can act on at this time; don't overwhelm them

4 ) Teacher students to self-assess and set goals
- should be done regularly with all students; not just an "add-on"

5 ) Design lessons to focus on one target at a time
- easier to address misconceptions
- make sure students know all parts must come together
* I really like the suggested "agree-disagree-depends-don't know" pre-test example

6 ) Teach student focused revision
- small group feedback instead of big-scale reteaching
- students can check for errors in work samples

7 ) Engage students in self-reflection and let them keep track and share their learning
- moves work away from the teacher and onto the students

_____________________________________________
I WANT TO KNOW:

What exactly do they mean by "audience" when comparing formative and summative assessment?
To me, the audience of a formative assessment would be the students and the teacher and the audience of a summative assessment would be all stakeholders.
What do you think?

Please leave your thoughts below :)